Sunday, 6 January 2019

Signing off

I was wondering why British convention is to end a letter to someone whose name you don't know - i.e. one that starts 'Dear Sir or Madam,' - with 'Yours faithfully'. How can you be faithful to someone you've never met?

Well, it turns out to be a contraction of what was for centuries the standard valediction to letters, some version of:

'Believe me to have the honour to remain your faithful and obedient servant'

Sometimes, between friends, it got shortened to something like this, from John Wilkes:

Also, I believe it was considered good style to try to end your letter in a way that made your name the object of the last sentence. Here's Lord Chesterfield having a bit of fun with it:



But how did they end letters to people to whom they didn't feel in the least faithful, humble or servile? Well, generally, they just said it anyway, because it was meaningless boilerplate. I gather there's a song in Hamilton about that (No, I haven't seen Hamilton yet. Yes, I know I should). 

But not always. Here's Richard Savage in 1735, writing to a member of the Irish nobility of whom he is... not a fan. 







61 comments:

Anonymous said...

And here's Samuel Johnson (the lexicographer whose many health issues get their own separate page on Wikipedia; also the perfect answer to "did you ever see a statue raised to a critic?") combining "having a bit of fun" (as demonstrated above by Lord Chesterfield) with ending a letter to someone to whom he didn't feel in the least any of the above (Lord Chesterfield, in fact, who had promised to be a patron of the Dictionary but hadn't been any help whatsoever then tried to claim when it was finished that he'd financed it):
"[...] for I have been long wakened from that dream of hope, in which I once boasted myself with such exaltation,

My Lord,

Your lordship's most humble,

most obedient servant,

SAM. JOHNSON."

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Eclectic Man said...

The last one is excellent, but another one I heard of was an accident. He was sending a critical e-mail out of his company, and instead of ending "Regards,... " accidentally typed "Retards, ..."

R.L. China said...

Why did they remove surnames from letters with that long em-dash, or en-dash, I can never remember which is which?

Anonymous said...

@ R. L. China: names were blanked out by the editors when those letters were published, to protect people's identities. (I can't remember whether it's an em-dash or en-dash either, though.)

Anonymous said...

In case anybody else is wondering:

— An em-dash is about the length of an m
– An en-dash is about the length of an n

:)

Anonymous said...

Isn't it yours faithfully when you know the name of the person and sincerely when it is Sir or Madam?

Clive W said...

No. JF has it right — if ‘right’ is a word you can even apply to an arbitrary convention.

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I once worked at a bedroom company and the office junior did a mail run of 3000 letters with a brochure. Which started with "Dear Sir or Madman"!

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michelle woods said...

PLEASE READ PLEASE READ

Hi, yes its real just got my blank atm card,from MR GEORGE. he is really good at what he is doing. met some people but they ran away with my money but mr george sent me the card two days ago through courier service in my country. The card programmed for only money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. The application process is so simple, i have tried mine with the closest ATM machine close to me, to my greatest surprise It worked like magic. I was able to withdraw up to $3000 daily, i dont have to worry about getting a loan anymore.This ATM has really change my life. If you want to contact them.
Here is the email address georgewilder402@gmail.com

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Eyja said...


Do you need an urgent blank ATM CARD to solve your financial needs and i just want to tell the world my experience with everyone. i discovered a hacking guy called Mike. he is really good at what he is doing, i inquired about the BLANK ATM CARD. if it works or even Exist, then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions. three days later i received my card and tried it with the closest ATM machine close to me, to my greatest surprise it worked like magic. i was able to withdraw up to $4000. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life. there is no ATM MACHINES this BLANK ATM CARD CANNOT penetrate into it because it have been programmed with various tools and software. i just felt this might help those of us in need of financial stability. The card have really change my life. if you want to contact them, HERE is the email: blankatm156@gmail.com

Walter smith said...

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steven lugard said...

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Check out these blank ATM cards today. My name is Steven Lugard from California. A successful business owner and father. I got one of these already programmed blank ATM cards that allows me withdraw a maximum of $5,000 daily for 30 days. I am so happy about these cards because I received mine last week and have already used it to get $20,000. Mr RICHARD COSMOS of ultimatehackersworlds@gmail.com is giving out these cards to support people in any kind of financial problem. I must be sincere to you, when i first saw the advert, I believed it to be illegal and a hoax but when I contacted Mr RICHARD COSMOS, he confirmed to me that although it is illegal, nobody gets caught while using these cards because they have been programmed to disable every communication once inserted into any Automated Teller Machine(ATM). If interested contact him as soon as possible ultimatehackersworlds@gmail.com .

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BRIAN said...

We are direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC and MTN which are specifically for lease, our bank instrument can be engage in PPP Trading, Discounting, signature project (s) such as Aviation, Agriculture, Petroleum, Telecommunication, construction of Dams, Bridges, Real Estate and all kind of projects. We do not have any broker chain in our offer or get involved in chauffer driven offers.

We deliver with time and precision as sethforth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable, below is our instrument description.

The procedure is very simple; the instrument will be reserved on euro clear to be verified by your bank, after verification an arrangement will be made for necessary bank documents and stock testing expenses, the cost of the Bank Guarantee will be paid after the delivery of the MT760,

DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS:

1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG/SBLC) (Appendix A)
2. Total Face Value: Eur 5M MIN and Eur 10B MAX (Ten Billion USD).
3. Issuing Bank: HSBC Bank London, Credit Suisse and Deutsche Bank Frankfurt.
4. Age: One Year, One Month
5. Leasing Price: 6% of Face Value plus 2% commission fees to brokers.
6. Delivery: Bank to Bank swift.
7. Payment: MT-103 or MT760
8. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days.

We are ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days, if interested do not hesitate to contact me direct. wrightjames931@gmail.com

Regards,
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Blank ATM Card said...

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Here are the price list for ATM Cards:
Balance Price

$2500---------------$155
$5000---------------$255
$10,000-------------$500
$13,000-------------$680
$15,000-------------$760
$17,000-------------$880
$20,000-------------$970
$25,000-------------$1000
$30,000-------------$1100
$35,000-------------$1200
$40,000-------------$1300
$45,000-------------$1350
$50,000-------------$1500

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Removing of name from debit record and criminal
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Unknown said...

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jamie said...

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Blank ATM Card said...

We Bring To You Good News From Hennager Blank ATM Cards And Bitcoin Investments..

Have you been trying to get a real blank ATM Card or bitcoin and it has been a problem trying to get one? Here is Hennager Blank ATM Card easy and affordable to get and it can be delivered to you waiting 24hrs after you have made your order from me at: hennager4040@gmail.com

We have special cash loaded programmed ATM card and bitcoin for you to meet up with those needs of yours and also start up your own business. Our ATM card can be used to withdraw cash at any ATM or swipe, stores and POS. Our cards has daily withdrawal limit depending on the card balance you order.You can make from $2500 to $50,000.00 In USD And EUR,with our Programmed card. Contact us today for your own order at : hennager4040@gmail.com

Here are the price list for ATM Cards:
Balance Price

$2700---------------$155
$5500---------------$255
$11,000-------------$500
$13,000-------------$680
$15,000-------------$760
$17,000-------------$880
$20,000-------------$970
$25,000-------------$1000
$30,000-------------$1100
$35,000-------------$1200
$40,000-------------$1300
$45,000-------------$1350
$50,000-------------$1500

Western Union/Money Gram Transfer
Walmart Transfer
Removing of name from debit record and criminal
Account top-up
Bitcoin Investments
We can also help you hack into any software you wish or want us to hack into too.

Do contact for more info and also on how you are going to get your order..
Order yours today via Email: Gmail-Compose mail to: hennager4040@gmail.com
Hangouts: hennager4040@gmail.com
TEXT: +1470 203 2639

Hennager Peter.

Blank ATM Card said...

We Bring To You Good News From Hennager Blank ATM Cards And Bitcoin Investments..

Have you been trying to get a real blank ATM Card or bitcoin and it has been a problem trying to get one? Here is Hennager Blank ATM Card easy and affordable to get and it can be delivered to you waiting 24hrs after you have made your order from me at: hennager4040@gmail.com

We have special cash loaded programmed ATM card and bitcoin for you to meet up with those needs of yours and also start up your own business. Our ATM card can be used to withdraw cash at any ATM or swipe, stores and POS. Our cards has daily withdrawal limit depending on the card balance you order.You can make from $2500 to $50,000.00 In USD And EUR,with our Programmed card. Contact us today for your own order at : hennager4040@gmail.com

Here are the price list for ATM Cards:
Balance Price

$2700---------------$155
$5500---------------$255
$11,000-------------$500
$13,000-------------$680
$15,000-------------$760
$17,000-------------$880
$20,000-------------$970
$25,000-------------$1000
$30,000-------------$1100
$35,000-------------$1200
$40,000-------------$1300
$45,000-------------$1350
$50,000-------------$1500

Western Union/Money Gram Transfer
Walmart Transfer
Removing of name from debit record and criminal
Account top-up
Bitcoin Investments
We can also help you hack into any software you wish or want us to hack into too.

Do contact for more info and also on how you are going to get your order..
Order yours today via Email: Gmail-Compose mail to: hennager4040@gmail.com
Hangouts: hennager4040@gmail.com
TEXT: +1470 203 2639

Hennager Peter.

Paula Mastop Bentes said...

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